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Brain rhythms have been recorded from the motor cortex for almost 100 years. While a number of coincidental functional patterns have been identified, the precise role of these oscillations remains unclear. Here, I will discuss a number of experiments, using parallel human and animal models (in-vitro rodent) recordings from the motor cortex. I will describe some of our recent contributions in this area, using pharmacological and brain stimulation approaches to understand the physiological mechanisms underlying motor cortex oscillations. Finally, I will examine the extent to which these neuronal network phenomena may play a role in motor function in healthy controls and in neurological disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease.